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CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL BASIS OF WATER AND ITS ANOMALIES

Water: the physical basics.

( Part one)

 


Image 1 : water molecule, the smallest magnet

Water molecule has a very simple chemical-physical structure. It consists of two hydrogen atoms (positioned at an angle of 104,7°) and one oxygen atom. This angle position is the result of the negative charge between the two poles that repel each other. This is called electrostatic repulsion.

Water has a diamagnetic behavior (Diamagnetism is a different form of magnetism, that some substances show in presence of magnetic fields, polarizing in opposite direction to the applied magnetic field).

The oxygen atom in water has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, but it has only six electrons in its outer orbit, and for this reason it attracts two connecting electrons to itself.

The junction point between these two electrons is closer to the oxygen atom, and as a result of this attraction the oxygen becomes slightly negatively charged, the hydrogen on the contrary slightly positively charged. Externally the atom is electrically neutral.

Because of the asymmetry of electric charge inside the molecule, we have the formation of a dipole (a system consisting of two equal electric charges of opposite sign placed at short distance from each other), this discovery allowed Linus Pauling to win the Nobel prize for physics.

Following this formation, hydrogen bridges are then formed, which bind to oxygen particles and form compositions of about 200-400 molecules. Macromolecule is born. This results in special properties beyond the usual physics.

Scientifically this was demonstrated by Ludwig and Kokoschinegg.



Image 2: hydrogen, the formation of the bridge